There are many existing and emerging modes of participation (including non-participation), which are manifested in multiple expressions of energy citizenship. However, not all views on energy citizenship are equally supported. There is support amongst traditional energy system powerholders for certain expressions of energy citizenship. The more ‘acceptable’ expressions are those that do not threaten the status quo. Other expressions which challenge incumbents or government policy are not so welcomed, and indeed such energy citizens are often marginalized by the incumbent powerholders
This deliverable presents a treatment of existing and emerging ideas of citizenship in the energy system and around energy more generally. An analysis of modes of (citizen) participation and related manifestations of energy citizenship is forwarded. This report – the first of two on characterizing and (re)conceptualizing expressions of energy citizenship – will both contribute to the ongoing discourse on the place of the citizen in the energy domain, and feed into the development of an energy citizenship typology to be presented in the second report from this package of work. Acknowledging that privilege(s) shape the type of relationships particular individuals and groups might have with energy, this report opens a discussion on the type(s) of energy citizenship experienced by those at the margins. In this way, an understanding of multiple (sometime overlapping) expressions of citizenship around energy is forwarded. This report will be of interest to both researchers and practitioners interesting in transforming the currently energy system (and its implications) for the way we live our lives.
This report captures the results of an extensive literature review of studies that cluster citizens regarding their energy/environmental behaviors. The report maps the factors that might be used in the literature to create clusters for decarbonization under the work of WP4. Outputs of the review are presented at two levels: individual and collective. At an individual level, major variables for clustering energy behaviors were categorized as socio-economic and demographic, psychological, energy consumption/environmental patterns across different areas of life (housing, transport, etc.), and other contextual variables. At a collective level, major variables were categorized as socio-economic and demographic, energy infrastructure variables, energy consumption profiles, environmental performance, and other contextual factors.
In the transition to a state of net-zero emissions of greenhouse gases, citizens are supposed to play a much larger role, including as self-consumers and participants in energy communities. As a result of this increasingly participatory role of citizens in the energy system, the new concept of energy citizenship has emerged in recent years. Around this term, we can also find emerging trends/ patterns that can relate to: (i.) the active participation in the energy market, such as the concept of prosumerism, smart technologies, etc., (ii.) behavioral attributes of citizens, (iii.) individual lifestyle changes, (iv.) collective initiatives and expressions of energy citizenship, and (v.) political activities. This report identifies the following trends/ patterns:
- Formation of energy communities;
- Establishment of eco-villages;
- Lifestyle changes;
- Energy efficiency measures;
- Citizens’ behavior;
- Preferences towards RES;
- Participation in energy transition movements;
- Participation in energy sector planning and decision-making.
The process of decision-making on climate and energy policy is a challenging task, which is affected by an important number of internal and external factors that influence the dynamics of the energy system. It is critical to investigate and understand how a specific policy instrument affects various sectors and to employ model-based scenarios to examine potential environmental and energy-related trends influenced by uncertain dynamics.
In this report, we have strived for the development of a comprehensive set of narratives and scenarios that will be used in the upcoming modeling exercises to produce outcomes related to the assessment of the decarbonization potential of the energy citizenship concept. In order to reach our goal, we explored the literature around the development of decarbonization narratives and scenarios, using as a starting point insights from the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C (SR1.5) and the concept of Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) to produce the most up-to-date and policy-relevant evidence on the contribution of energy citizenship in reaching climate neutrality.
In particular, the five SSPs present a set of five qualitative descriptions of future changes in demographics, human development, economy and lifestyle, policies and institutions, technology, and environment and natural resources:
- SSP1: “Sustainability-Taking the Green Road”
- SSP2: “Middle of the Road”
- SSP3: “Regional Rivalry-A Rocky Road”
- SSP4: “Inequality-A Road Divided”
- SSP5: “Fossil-fueled Development-Taking the Highway”
Based on the SSPs, we formulated three narratives, which describe future systemic changes of the society and economy in general, providing with “future worlds” that will be inhabited by citizens:
- “A unified world” (Citizens at the core of the energy transition, inclusive development).
- “A fragmented world” (Regional conflicts, countries prioritize domestic issues).
- “A familiar world” (Reference narrative).
In parallel, we brought the citizens to the forefront with the aim of also building “people-centric” narratives, based on energy citizenship trends & patterns previously identified:
- “Power to the People” (Active participation in the energy market).
- “Band Together” (Collective expressions of energy citizenship).
- “Habitual Creatures” (Actions towards energy efficiency).
- “People to the Streets” (Political activities).
- “Business as usual” (Reference narrative).
Finally, as a next step, and through the combination of “future worlds” and “people-centric” narratives, we will formulate specific quantitative scenarios, which will be modeled with the use of the ENCLUDE modeling ensemble, i.e., the Agent-based Technology adOption Model (ATOM), the Dynamic high-Resolution dEmand-sidE Management (DREEM) model, and the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE).
Analyzing two collective actions from the United States—the civil rights movement and the fall of the tobacco industry—brings valuable insights that may be applied to the energy transition context. More specifically, the two case studies show the different transformation pathways through which change happens at a large scale. These collective actions are also centered around different resources – cigarettes as a tangible product, and justice as a non-tangible resource. As the energy transition has elements from both collective actions, the insights from the analysis may be related not only to the use of technology and the related practices but also to the justice elements found within the changes that need to be carried out in the future.
ENCLUDE will develop an open-access web platform to synthesize the outcomes of the project in a form that is useful for and usable by the project’s audience. The ENCLUDE Platform will be based on I2AM PARIS, a data exchange platform for climate modeling that was developed during the Horizon 2020 Paris Reinforce project. This report contains information about project methodologies and data inputs that are relevant to document in the Platform, along with different protocols for synthesizing project outputs. First, a typology of energy citizenship will be integrated in an interactive form, allowing users to explore all its different dimensions. Similarly, the Platform will include the case studies of Collective Energy Initiatives that are analyzed by ENCLUDE and will host a set of energy citizen profiles based on clustering results of large population surveys. The Platform will also visualize the decarbonization potential and co-benefits of collective energy actions for these citizen clusters. Furthermore, the report discusses three protocols to synthesize project outcomes, based on a modular, interlinked, and layered architecture. During the next months, we aim to contact relevant stakeholders such as local policymakers, participants of the ENCLUDE Academy, and representatives of Collective Energy Initiatives for feedback on the design of the Platform. After ENCLUDE’s end, the platform will be taken over by two Horizon Europe projects, providing a lifetime of at least until the end of 2026, while further avenues for the sustainability of the platform will be also examined.
The overall vision of the Horizon 2020 project Energy Citizens for Inclusive Decarbonization (ENCLUDE) is to help the EU fulfill its promise of just and inclusive decarbonization through sharing and co-creating new knowledge and practices that maximize the number and diversity of citizens who are willing and able to contribute to the energy transition. By establishing a structured and well-documented pool of relevant international case studies, the project aims to study energy citizenship from a group-centered sociological perspective, in order to identify the most important processes and factors affecting the emergence and consolidation of energy citizenship groups. The data collection to create the case studies pool of Collective Energy Initiatives (CEIs) was a mixture of desktop research and qualitative semi-structured interviews. Information was gathered for a set of questions concerning the size, age, and location of the initiative, the type of participation and governance, the resources, the main activities, goals, and impacts, among others. Our approach is based on two theoretical frameworks: the Energy Cultures Framework and the Socio-Ecological Systems Framework for Integrated Community Energy Systems. First, information was derived from public sources, such as websites of the cases, study reports, business reports, etc. Then, interviews with a case representative were conducted, when possible, to deepen and supplement the information. To analyse the obtained information, we used an adapted variant of the grounded theory. We identified categories into which the cases can be split according to the information we gathered for each of the asked questions, by looking both at all cases as a whole and at the details of each case separately, in order to identify patterns. The initial results of our analysis are presented in the attached leaflet.